Endoscopy and Biopsy
The term biopsy refers to a procedure where tissues are examined from any part of the body, like skin, internal organs, and other external structures.
Here the parts are examined using a microscope. A biopsy procedure is referred to when the doctor inspects an area with an abnormality that may or may not be cancerous. However, a biopsy is the most reliable test to confirm if the person has cancer or some other condition.
Various tests like CT scan, X-rays, etc., assist the patient in finding out the concerned region of deviation, but they can’t distinguish between abnormal cells and cancerous cells. Endoscopy and biopsy are two methods done separately; an endoscopy is not painful but can be uncomfortable; however, a biopsy can be.
While endoscopy is the process where a medical instrument called an endoscope is used to inspect and have a clear view of the body’s internal parts, an endoscopic biopsy is a perfect procedure to determine the aberrant cells in a particular tissue area of concern.
This method can be used to observe a person going through symptoms of cancer. Though endoscopy and biopsy are different, the term endoscopic biopsy comes together whenever complications arise in diagnosing symptoms.
Endoscopy for celiac disease
Celiac disease is caused by the protein called gluten, which is present in wheat, barley, rye. It is a fairly common disease, with millions of cases over the globe. The doctor may recommend an endoscopy for celiac disease to identify the abnormal cells in the gastrointestinal tract that are causing inflammation or infection.
In this test, doctors alleviate the endoscope through the mouth and stomach, for upper GI endoscopy biopsy test, into the small intestine, and then take tissue samples with other tools directed by the endoscope. The endoscope works on the upper GI endoscopy biopsy.
Diarrhea, bloating, fatigue, weight loss, etc., are the prior signs and symptoms of celiac disease. However, if left untreated, it can give rise to malnourishment. Most of the time, biopsies from the duodenum are taken; this is because of reactions taking place in the duodenum cells, which are responsible for weight loss.
Endoscopy D2 biopsy is the biopsy done from the second part of the duodenum, due to weight loss symptoms. It is a common practice for patients undergoing upper GI endoscopy biopsy test also called endoscopy for celiac disease. Weight loss is a primary symptom of Celiac disease.
Endoscopic biopsy of Gastric tissue
For biopsy of stomach during endoscopy, gastric tissue and its culture are tested, typically the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract, to identify the source of stomach ulcer or any other symptoms causing health damage.
Here the tissue is kept in a special dish to observe the bacteria growing. With the endoscope, the doctors can inspect abnormalities and remove tissue for biopsy. This test diagnoses malignancy and the bacterial infection caused by Helicobacter Pylori, which causes peptic ulcer.
Biopsies are done whenever an endoscopy biopsy test is carried out; however, in some cases like inflammation; the cells are inflamed and can be seen through the camera; therefore, a biopsy is unnecessary.
The endoscope was discovered in 1806. The main reason for its discovery was validation, investigation, and treatment. Viewing the cells and tissues and diagnosing every part of the region concerned with an abnormality is not easy.
However, some irregularities can be identified by endoscopies such as ulcers, swelling or inflammation, Barrette’s Disease, blockages, the link of cancerous cells or precancerous condition, etc.
When endoscopies are carried out, patients are put under anesthesia so that they don’t become uncomfortable during the test.
Endoscopic biopsy interpretation
Rudolf Schindler presented the endoscopy procedure. He discovered the endoscope too, which consists of two types of endoscopes, rigid and flexible endoscopes.
Flexible endoscopes are of two types, fiber optic and electronic. BX processing is the method that is used for endoscopy. During the interpretation, the pathologist and the endoscopist should have proper communication.
It is necessary to know the clinical history, physical findings, BX site, etc., for appropriate knowledge of the patient’s body. Thus, the result of endoscopic biopsy with BX is necessary. Sometimes we take biopsies during endoscopy; this is the part of the investigation of tissues.
Report on endoscopic biopsy
This test report describes the sample taken out from the body, its characteristics such as color, odor, texture, etc. Both pathologists and endoscopists generate this report; therefore, all the information written on it is essential.
It describes the clinical history, diagnosis, microscopic descriptions, and the complications inside the organ. There are images of the body part captured by this technique to have an apparent reference of medicines and other objectives.
The pathologist examines the cells, and within 15 – 20 minutes, the results are generated. However, it takes nearly one or two days to examine a biopsy. When the endoscopic biopsy techniques are collaborated, they need almost one week for more complicated analysis.
Specific terms in the report include false negative, false positive, true negative, and positive.
- False-negative: the report misleads and says that the substance or condition you are trying to find is absent. If the substance is present, it is diagnosed as normal because of genetics or any other deviation.
- False-positive: the report misleads and says the substance you are trying to find is present, though it is absent.
- True negative: this is a false-positive case where it detects that the harmful condition or substance is present though it is not.
- Positive: the harmful substance or condition is present.
Laparoscopy – a modified type of endoscopy
Laparoscopy is related to the endoscopy biopsy test; it is a small surgery where a fiber-optic instrument is inserted to see the abdomen.
However, this is the advanced version of endoscopy where small openings are made to perform appendectomies, hysterectomies, and prostatectomies.
Appendectomies are for the inflamed appendix, which, if left untreated, burst and can seriously affect body tissues.
Hysterectomies is the surgery that is done in women to remove the uterus. Prostatectomies are done in men to remove prostate glands; however, it can present unwanted effects like erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence.
What are the risk factors of endoscopic biopsy?
Overall, this procedure is safe, but few complications may arise during the process, such as perforation, bleeding, sedation reaction, and pancreatitis resulting from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).
What are the types of biopsies? And why are there so many types of it?
Several types of biopsies exist, such as fine-needle aspiration biopsy, core needle biopsy, vacuum-assisted biopsy, shave biopsy, excisional biopsy, punch biopsy, etc.
As there are different organs in the body, all organs cannot acquire the same type of treatment due to their location, function, etc.; different organs require different kinds of biopsies.
Which type of endoscopy is accurate?
If we talk about the conventional procedure of endoscopy, it has a transducer or camera at the tip; however, it is more accurate than the one which produces ultrasound.
Because of transducer propinquity towards tissues and cells, the images can be captured more efficiently; thus, the conventional procedure is more accurate, but if it is not possible, then we can go on the ultrasound device.
Is endoscopic biopsy painful?
If you have never gone through an endoscopy, know that the procedure can be a little uncomfortable. The doctor will apply lubricating liquid and anesthetic to the rear end, for better facilitation and movement of the endoscope. The best thing to do while an endoscopy is to breathe and relax. Endoscopy is not painful, but endoscopic biopsy might produce a little pain, since a tissue sample from your body is being taken.
How much time does an endoscopy require?
An endoscopy can be finished in 10-30 minutes, depending on which part of your intestine is being examined and what you are being examined for.