WHAT IS SEROLOGICAL TEST?
Serological tests can also be referred to as “Antibody Test” or “Serology Test“. This test involves series of procedures performed by extracting a sample of the blood serum which is a pure liquid that is distinguished by the separation from the blood when it is permitted to clot all to identify antibodies or similar antibody structures that may appear in connection to certain types of diseases.
A serological test is a test performed on an individual to check for the protein level produced by the immune system and search for antibodies in the blood for harmful antibodies that attacks the body known as autoantibodies. These involve a blood test and they are performed in a laboratory.
Serology blood test helps in monitoring the human system to promote healthy living and eliminate any foreign substance present that could prompt illness. This serology is helpful while diagnosing bacterial infection, parasitic attacks, and viral infections which may include yellow fever, influenza, polio, rheumatoid arthritis, measles, infectious mononucleosis, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
Also, due to its success rate, the sero test has been marked as a perfect mass screening tool for the determination of diseases and conditions such as coronavirus, epidemic diseases, HIV/AIDS, syphilis, and pandemic diseases.
Blood aerology can be categorized into different kinds and all these types have a similar process and objective which is evaluating the protein being produced by the immune system regardless of the method used in the laboratory during the serological test.
WHY IS A SEROLOGICAL TEST DONE?
Generally, possessing a knowledge of the condition of the body such as the state of the immune system and why we are susceptible to sickness is deemed important to maintain and regulate healthy living.
Substances like antigens which are very tiny tend to ignite a response from the immune system in the body. These antigens are not noticeable with the naked eyes due to their size but they can penetrate through the human skin, mouth, or even through the airway path.
These antigens can either be bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, though the immune system fights against such antigens by producing antibodies. These antibodies attack the antigens and nulls the activation energy.
Therefore, when a serological test is done, the type of antibodies present in the immune system alongside the antigens are observed through the blood samples extracted to evaluate possible diseases and infections.
Also, there can be a condition known as the autoimmune disorder in which the body produces unnecessary antibodies due to error by mistaking normal body tissues for potential invaders. Thereby, requiring the serological method to evaluate the autoimmune disorder and antibodies.
TYPES OF SEROLOGICAL TEST
The types of serological analysis in use can be used for the diagnosis of different conditions due to diverse antibodies. These types are explained below:
- Flocculation Test
The complement-fixation test is the most widely used flocculation test which involves precipitation as they occur when specially prepared antigens which will certainly instigate the production of antibodies are combined to produce a flocculent precipitate. This will entail a positive result.
- Neutralization Test
The neutralization test is strongly dependent on the ability of the antibodies to neutralize any infection features that are present in the infectious agents.
- Hemagglutinin-Inhibition Test
These tests depend on the capabilities of the virus present in the samples to prompt the red blood cells of the individual to conceal or agglutinate. In most cases of healthy living, the antibodies tend to prevent the red blood cells from clumping together or congealing.
- Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs)
This serological test utilizes fluorescent light, colorimetric signal detection, or chemiluminescent. This aids the detection and quantification of an antigen or antibodies that lead to the production of enzymatic reactions when signals are detected.
- Chemiluminescence Immunoassays:
This serological test is dependent on detecting light signals which are emitted through chemical reactions existing between chemical probes or enzymes that are attached to the antibodies.
- Western Blot Test
The Western blot test involves the identification of the presence of any antimicrobial antibodies which may be present in the blood based on the reaction of the antimicrobial antibodies to target antigens.
ELIGIBILITY FOR THE SEROLOGICAL TEST
Due to the nature of the serological test, anyone is eligible to undergo the test as it is one of the prerequisites for monitoring the healthy state of an individual.
People with possible HIV/AIDS, syphilis, pandemic conditions, epidemic diseases, and other infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites can also undergo this test.
SEROLOGY TEST PROCEDURE
Before the patient visits the hospital for the serological test, no special preparations that may involve fasting or avoiding certain drinks are recommended. When the patient is ready, a blood sample will be extracted by inserting the needle into the patient’s vein and collecting blood samples.
For children, a lancet is used to pierce the skin and collect blood samples which will be taken to the laboratory to perform the serological test.
The process is not a painful one and the testing procedure occurs for a short period.
SEROLOGICAL TEST RESULT
The human system tends to produce antibodies in response to the presence of any infection, therefore, when the result shows the absence of any antibodies of any kind, then the patient does not have an infection. In conclusion, the blood sample is normal.
In cases where antibodies are produced in the blood samples used for the serological test, the result is abnormal indicating the response of the immune system to an antigen from either previous or present exposure to any disease of any kind or a foreign protein.
As previously stated, autoimmune disorder as a result of irregularities in the production of antibodies for normal healthy tissues can be diagnosed by the doctor. The serological test can aid the diagnosis by discovering the presence of some kinds of protein or antigens that may be present in the blood samples.
Also, the presence of some kinds of antibodies may indicate the immune susceptibility nature of the patient to one or more antigens that could help deduct conclusions about the liability of the patient to future exposure I.e future exposure to these antigens may not result in illness.
Serological testing can aid the diagnosis of health conditions such as
- Amebiasis, mainly a result of parasitic attacks.
- Rubella, mainly caused by a virus.
- Brucellosis, caused by bacteria.
- Fungal infection.
- Measles, mainly a result of a virus.
SEROLOGICAL TEST COMPLICATIONS
Complications acquainted with the serological test are not severe as the only possible complication can be excessive bleeding which if not treated properly can result in the development of infections. Therefore, the serological test is not considered risky.
SEROLOGICAL TEST SPECIALIST
A well-trained doctor can perform the serological test and it can be performed in the doctor’s office.
- What is the importance of serological tests in diagnosis?
This test is essential as it can diagnose various disease conditions and they focus on the protein level produced in the immune system.
- What is the serological diagnosis of infections?
This serology permits the evaluation of human immunity to various organisms and the ability to fight against pathogens and antigens that could result in an acute infection.
- Which is the most common test used for viral diagnosis?
Basically, of all the methods used for antigen detection such as Immunoperoxidase, EIA, and fluorescent method. The fluorescent method is the most used for diagnosing viruses.
- What are the three best methods of virus detection?
The best methods for virus detection are integrity checking, scanning, heuristic detection, and interception, though, scanning and interception are said to be widely used amongst others.
- How do you know if you have a strong immune system?
A strong immune system can be observed by the response of the body to possible infections and antigens. A perfect example is the mosquito bite. The presence of an itch, redness, and bump shows signs of the functionality of the immune system.