Hyperoxaluria and Oxalosis

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What Is Oxalate? Oxalate is an organic compound with the formula C2H2O4, otherwise called “oxalic acid”. Oxalate is a naturally occurring molecule found in abundance in plants, animals, and humans.  Oxalate is one substance that can form crystals in urine. This can happen if there is too much oxalate, too little fluid, and the oxalate […] Read More

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Hyperoxaluria and Oxalosis

What Is Oxalate? Oxalate is an organic compound with the formula C2H2O4, otherwise called “oxalic acid”. Oxalate is a naturally occurring molecule found in abundance in plants, animals, and humans.  Oxalate is one substance that can form crystals in urine. This can happen if there is too much oxalate, too little fluid, and the oxalate binds to the calcium while urine is being formed by the kidneys.  Too much oxalate in your urine can cause serious problems. It is important to note that certain conditions may lead to hyperoxaluria. Diagnosis Of Hyperoxaluria
  1. Physical Examination: A physical examination by the physician should cover medical history and discussion of your diet.
  2. Medical Tests: 
  • Urine tests; to know oxalate and other element levels in the urine.
  • Blood tests; to assess kidney function and oxalate level in the blood.
  • Kidney stones analysis; to know what chemicals are in the stone. The test is done on the kidney stones that have been passed in the urine or removed from the urinary tract during surgery.
  1. Imagery Tests; to check for any kidney stones or oxalate deposits:
Apart from the above, your doctor may insist on further tests to confirm hyperoxaluria. They may include:
  1. Kidney biopsy.
  2. Echocardiogram.
  3. Eye exam.
  4. Bone marrow biopsy.
The above-mentioned is to check for oxalate deposits
  • DNA testing; to check for inherited causes.
  • Liver biopsy; to check for enzyme deficiencies, where genetic testing does not reveal the cause.
Treatment Of Hyperoxaluria Treatment is given depending on the types and symptoms and severity of hyperoxaluria. The major cause of hyperoxaluria is the presence of oxalate crystals in the kidney, blood, or urine.  To reduce the amount of oxalate crystal formation, one or more of these treatments is recommended:
  • High fluid intake.
With a healthy kidney, your doctor may recommend more water or fluid intake. This flushes the kidneys, thus preventing oxalate build-up.
  • Medications.
Vitamin B6 can be effective in reducing oxalate in the urine. Phosphate and citrate prevent the function of calcium oxalate crystals. Thiazide diuretics are another helpful medication.
  • Right diet
Isolate is found in abundance in the plant. Most food is high in oxalate. Your doctor may recommend changes in your diet, including restrictions in high oxalate food. Reduce the intake of salt, animal protein, salt, and sugar. Follow your doctor’s recommendations.
  • Dialysis.
With dialysis, the blood is purified using the machine. This helps to keep the right levels of your fluid and electrolyte when the kidney fails.
  • Transplantation.
With the help of highly qualified consultants, surgery can be carried out to replace damaged kidneys and liver. A kidney or kidney and liver transplant can cure certain inherited hyperoxaluria.
  • Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
Certain kidney stones (depending on the size in locations) are broken into tiny pieces that can be passed in your urine using ESWL. Complications Of Hyperoxaluria
  1. Kidney failure.
Signs and symptoms of kidney failure include:
  • A general feeling of illness and tiredness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Reduced or no urine output
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Hand and feet swelling
  • Skin tones pell.
  1. Bone diseases
  2. Skin problems
  3. Heart diseases
  4. Poor development in children
  5. Anemia
Low Oxalate Diet The following fruits have a low to the medium of oxalate:
  • Grains
  • Fruits; apples, bananas, grapes, etc.
  • Vegetables; artichokes, asparagus, and Brussels.
  • Dairy products; cheese, yogurt, milk, etc.
  • Protein foods
  • Drinks and desserts.
High Oxalate Diet
  • Beans
  • Beer
  • Beets
  • Berries
  • Chocolate
  • Coffee
  • Cranberries
  • Dark green vegetables, such as spinach.
Mortality Rate Hyperoxaluria (PHI) results in oxalosis and then kidney failure. End-stage renal failure is reached by the age of 15 years in 50% of PHI patients and the overall death rate approximates 30%. At the time of kidney transplant (Tx), because of a 100% recurrence rate, the average 3-year graft survival is 15% to 25% in Europe, with a 5 to 10 years patient survival rate ranging from 10 to 15%.


Symptoms Of Hyperoxaluria

Watch out for the symptoms of kidney stones, which is the first prominent sign of hyperoxaluria.

Symptoms of kidney stones include:

  • Blood in the urine.
  • Painful urination.
  • Frequent urge to urinate.
  • Severe and/or sudden backache.
  • Persistent pain in the area below the ribs on the back.
  • Feeling of cold and fever.


Causes of Hyperoxaluria

  • Oxalosis 

Oxalosis takes place when an inherited hyperoxaluria person's kidney malfunctions. This kidney failure hinders the elimination of the extra oxalate. It starts accumulating, first in the blood, then in the eyes, muscles, bones, blood vessels, heart, and other body organs; thus forming stones and causing multiple problems.

  • Intestinal (Enteric) Hyperoxaluria

Some intestinal diseases (including Crohris disease, short gut syndrome, due to surgical procedures) can lead to increased absorption of oxalate from foods, thereby heightening the amount of oxalate in the urine.

  • High Oxalate Foods

When your table is mainly made of foods high in oxalate, an increased risk of hyperoxaluria or kidney stones is eminent. Avoiding high-oxalate foods is very beneficial for you and your family.


What is a normal oxalate level?

The normal level of urine oxalate excretion is less than 45mg/day. A higher level of urine oxalate puts you at the risk of developing kidney stones. The normal level of oxalate in urine is considered to be 25mg/day.

What dissolves kidney stones fast?

Taking much water (fluid) may help speed up the passing of a stone. Your doctor may advise against a juice that may cause side effects. In addition to much water consumption, the following juice is helpful: Lemon juice, Basil juice, Apple cider vinegar, Pomegranate juice, Celery juice, Kidney bean broth, Dandelion root juice, and more.

What medical condition can too much oxalate lead to in humans?

Too much oxalate in the body can cause some serious health problems, ranging from kidney stone formations to kidney failure or even death. An excess amount of oxalate can combine with calcium in the urine to develop kidney stones and crystals to form recurrent kidney stones. Recurrent kidney stones and crystals can block the kidney and lead to kidney failure.

What is primary hyperoxaluria type 1?

Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH 1) is one of a group of rare diseases that are genetic or inherited from your parents. PH 1 builds up a high amount of oxalate in your kidneys, which leads to kidney damage and breakdown. Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare disease, affects only about 1 in 58,000 people with type 1 accounting for about 80%.

How long does a kidney and liver transplant take?

Transplant surgery duration differs. Kidney transplant can take 4 to 5 hours, and liver transplant can take 5 to 8 hours.