Hyperparathyroidism

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What is Hyperparathyroidism? Hyperparathyroidism is the abnormally high concentration of parathyroid hormones in the blood, resulting in the loss or absence of calcium in the bones, which leads to the weakening of bones. Types of Hyperparathyroidism Hyperparathyroidism can be categorized into the following: Primary Hyperparathyroidism This occurs when one or more of your parathyroid glands […] Read More

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Hyperparathyroidism

What is Hyperparathyroidism? Hyperparathyroidism is the abnormally high concentration of parathyroid hormones in the blood, resulting in the loss or absence of calcium in the bones, which leads to the weakening of bones. Types of Hyperparathyroidism Hyperparathyroidism can be categorized into the following:
  • Primary Hyperparathyroidism
This occurs when one or more of your parathyroid glands has a problem leading to an excess release of parathyroid hormones. Often caused by a benign growth or cancerous tumor in the gland.
  • Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
This occurs when there is an underlying condition such as chronic kidney failure that causes calcium and vitamin D levels to decrease. 
  • Tertiary Hyperparathyroidism
This occurs when parathyroid hormones keep being produced by the parathyroid glands even when calcium level is normal. Diagnosis On the occurrence of symptoms, visit and consult a doctor. After going through your medical history and physical examination, these tests may be recommended: Laboratory Tests; to check the level of calcium in the body, such as: Imagery Tests such as:
  • Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA); bone mineral density test to reveal if you have developed osteoporosis.
  • Abdominal X-ray; to determine if you have kidney stones or other kidney abnormalities.
  • Sestamibi Parathyroid Scan; to check abnormalities in the parathyroid glands.
  • Computerized Tomography (CT)
  • Ultrasound Transducer.
Treatment Hyperparathyroidism can be treated, managed, and controlled through the use of the following: Medications
  • Calciumimetics such as Cinacalcet (Sensipar); to regulate the level of calcium stimulation from the bones.
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy; to regulate parathyroid hormone levels.
  • Bisphosphonates.
Surgery 
  • Minimally Invasive Radioguided Parathyroid (MIRP) Surgery; to stop the parathyroid glands from producing excess parathyroid hormones.
  • Parathyroidectomy; surgery to remove damaged and irreparable parathyroid glands.
  • Parathyroid Transplant; a transplant of one parathyroid gland from a donor, if all 4 parathyroid glands are damaged and removed
Home Management Remedies You can adhere to the following guidelines to help you control the condition:
  • Monitor your dietary calcium and vitamin D intake as recommended by your dietician.
The daily recommended calcium intake for adults ages 19 to 50 and males ages 51 to 70 is 1000mgCa/day. Females of age 51 and older, and males of age 71 and older have a recommended dose of 1200mgCa/day.  The daily recommended vitamin D intake for people of age 1 to 70 is 600IUs/day and for adults of age 71 and older is 800IUs/day.
  • Drink plenty of fluids, mostly water.
  • Engage in regular exercise.
  • Do not smoke or take hard drugs.
  • Avoid calcium-raising drugs such as diuretics, lithium, etc.

Symptoms

Symptoms

Often, symptoms take a long time to develop, but when they occur, they may include the following:

  • Excessive thirst
  • Fatigue
  • Frequent and excess urination
  • Loss of appetite
  • Depression
  • Nausea
  • Muscle weakness
  • Kidney stones
  • Osteoporosis; weakness and breaking of bones.

Causes

Causes

Hyperparathyroidism is a health disorder caused by an abnormal release of excess parathyroid hormones from parathyroid glands in the neck into the bloodstream.

Parathyroid hormone regulates calcium levels in the blood, largely by increasing the level when calcium is too low. 

Bones have a very large calcium deposit, and so when there is a shortfall of calcium in the blood, the parathyroid hormones stimulate the release of calcium from the bones into the bloodstream. 

However, on the high concentration of parathyroid hormones, there is excessive stimulation of calcium release from the bones into the blood, which can result in a decrease of calcium in the bones. This decrease of calcium stored in the bone results in the weakening of the bone and decreases the formation of new bones.

FAQ

How long can you live with hyperparathyroidism?

Hyperparathyroidism may go on its own if less severe, otherwise, one may live with it for about 10 years without causing too many problems. Problems that may begin to occur include kidney stones, osteoporosis, memory loss, excessive urination, thirst, nausea, weakness, etc. However, do not be careless and leave it untreated as the condition can kill when it is advanced, like beyond 15 to 20 years without medications.

What are the 3 types of hyperparathyroidism?

The three types of hyperparathyroidism are:

  • Primary,
  • Secondary,
  • Tertiary.

Can hyperparathyroidism make you gain weight?

Chronic fatigue is an experience of a hyperparathyroidism patient, which makes him/her less active and more prone to weight gain.

How long do you stay in the hospital after parathyroid surgery?

Hospitalization for parathyroid surgery may be more than one night depending on the type of surgery carried out and the recovery rate of each surgery. 

Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery has lesser hospital time, which can be a day or less, than parathyroid surgery and/or transplant. Rarely, all 4 parathyroid glands may be removed, and sometimes, one can be transplanted. A transplant has more hospital stay time because the patient's adaptation to the new organ has to be monitored.

Complications, though not common, may occur, and this may result in my time in the hospital. 

What happens after parathyroid removal?

Certain side effects are prominent after parathyroidectomy. You may experience:

  • Hoarseness of voice
  • Low blood calcium levels
  • Weakness.