Metabolic Bone Disease

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Metabolic bone disease (MBD) is used to describe a wide spectrum of bone disease due to insufficiencies of minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D. They result in fractures or deformity of the bone.

MBDs include: 

  • Osteoporosis, 
  • Osteomalacia, 
  • Rickets, 
  • Renal osteodystrophy, and 
  • Osteitis deformans are also called “Paget’s disease of bone”.

Osteoporosis is considered the most common form of MBD. Osteoporosis can be defined as a condition of the bone in which the bone mass and density decrease resulting in a weak bone that could break easily. An elderly woman is mostly affected and sites of fractures are mostly the hips, wrists, vertebral bones. Osteoporosis does not show symptoms and may not be diagnosed until a fracture has occurred.

MBD can occur also in children. They affect the child’s linear growth, produce bone deformities, impaired motor functions, and development, etc.

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Metabolic Bone Disease


MBD can be diagnosed through:

  • Careful observation of medical history 
  • Careful physical examination
  • Lab and Imagery tests such as X-rays, computerized tomography (CT) scan, bone density screening, etc.
  • Bone biopsy


The risk factors of MBD include:

  • Old age
  • Small body size
  • People with a history of fracture
  • People who use steroid very often
  • People with intestinal disorders


Treating MBDs depends on its underlying cause. However, treatments are most likely to include:

  • Early diagnoses could aid in facilitating treatment and recovery process
  • Eating a balanced meal rich in minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D.
  • Taking the mineral supplement regularly
  • Avoiding smoking
  • Taking alcohol in moderation
  • Exercising regularly
  • Medication to help slow the rate of bone loss and structure will be given


Complications of leaving MBDs untreated for a while include:

  • Bone fragility
  • Bone deformities


The symptoms of MBDs may vary according to the type and the severity. Still, certain common signs can be relatable to all of them and these signs may include:

  • Limping and one-sided movement
  • Bowed legs
  • Softening of the jaw
  • Difficulty walking, getting up, sitting, and walking the stairs
  • Reduced appetite
  • Pains in bones
  • Loss of height


It is caused by an imbalance of minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamin D. All these minerals are essential in bone formation and structure. Hence, deficiency or any irregularities in these minerals can lead to MBD.

Osteoporosis, the most common form of MBD, can be caused by Oestrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women.
Problems with the parathyroid glands which regulate calcium and phosphorus in the body.


  • What is the most common metabolic bone disease?

The most common metabolic bone disease is osteoporosis. It is simply the weakening of the bone after its formation due to a deficiency in mineral supply needed by the bone, making it easily fractured.

  • How do you treat metabolic bone disease?

The most effective method of treating and managing metabolic bone disease includes a balanced diet with sufficient minerals, regular exercise, medication to slow the rate of bone loss.

  • Can the bone disease be cured?

Most bone disease can be effectively managed but has no cure yet. Treatments could relieve symptoms and improve the lifestyle by reducing bone breakage and maximizing movement.

  • Do soft drinks weaken your bones?

Regular consumption of soft drinks may not be healthy for the bones due to their caffeine and phosphoric acid which hurt the bone

  • How do you increase your bone density?

You can boost your bone density by increasing your calcium consumption, eating lots of green vegetables, regular exercise, increase your vitamins in taking especially vitamin D and K, reduce caffeine in taking.