- Low levels of most or all of the immunoglobin [Ig] classes.
- Lack of B lymphocytes of plasma cells that can produce antibodies.
- Recurrent infections caused by bacteria.
ComplicationsCVID weakens the immune system. Due to the weakening of immunity, many health conditions can arise. Such complications include:
- Lung infections
- Enlarged lymphoid tissues
- Kidney problems
- Reduced liver function or failure
- Poor response to vaccines decreased in life expectancy
- Recurring infections, etc.
DiagnosisThe diagnosing of common variable immunodeficiency [CVID] is a difficult task. Therefore, the diagnosis of CVID is denoted by its symptoms. However, the diagnosis can be made using these criteria if the person:
- 4years and above.
- Shows a marked decrease in serum IgG levels [˂4.5g/L], IgA, IgM(occasionally).
- Lacks antibody immune response of protein antigen or immunization.
- Quantification of T cells and B cells by flow cytometry. It helps distinguish CVID from other immunodeficiency disorders such as multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, X-linked agammaglobulinemia .
- Imaging studies such as CT scans of the chest help detect pulmonary abnormalities.
- Histological findings: histological changes noticed in lymph nodes are: atypical hyperplasia, granulomatous inflammation, reactive follicular hyperplasia .
- Other tests include Bronchoscopy, biopsy, endoscopy, etc.
Treatment for CVIDThere are many ways or methods of treating CVID. Treatments include:
- Regular Immunoglobulin (Gammaglobulin) Therapy
- Antibiotic Medications
- Vitamin B12 Injections
- Surgical care:
- Other symptomatic and supportive treatments include:
- Complete blood count [CBC] to detect lymphoma.
- Differential white blood cell counts to detect lymphoma.
- Annual thyroid examination and thyroid function testing.
- Annual pulmonary [lung] function testing, beginning about 8 to 10 years.
- Biopsy of enlarged lymphoid tissues.
- Other imaging techniques for assessment of granulomatous disease and gastrointestinal complications.
TIPS TO BOOST YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM
- Eat a small portion of protein at every meal.
- Ensure to go for fruit ties and veggies rich in vitamins A, C, and E.
- Citrus fruits, such as:
- Regulate the rate at which you take vitamin D.
- Cook with olive and canola oils.
- Daily exercises.
- Reduce your stress levels.
- Listening to music.
- Reading journals.
- Listening to scriptural or biblical messages.
- Associating more with people.
- Feeling excited, joyful, and happy.
CVID is caused by a diversity of different genetic abnormalities that leads to a defect in the ability of immune cells to produce exact amounts of all types of antibodies. Only a few of these fat faults have been identified, and the cause of most cases of CVID is unknown.
Many CVID patients carry a DNA variation called polymorphies is a gene known as TACL. Although this genetic abnormality has increased the rate of developing CVID, it cannot on its cause CVID.
CVID comes up as a result of defects in the genes involved in the immune system. Due to the defect, the body would produce abnormally low amounts of proteins called immunoglobulins, among which is immunoglobulin G [IgG]. When levels of IgG are low in the blood, the body finds it difficult to fight infections. Low levels of IgG in the blood depict a weakened immune system.
IgA deficiency usually occurs alone, but in certain situations, it may occur before CVID develops or occur in CVID patient’s family members.
In most cases, this genetic mutation and CVID symptoms develop without any obvious cause. About 10% of CVID cases are hereditary.
The signs of CVID may vary from one person to another. They can also range from mild and severe.
These indications may include any of the below:
- Chronic cough.
- Breathing problems.
- Recurring lung infections, such as pneumonia and asthma.
- Loss of weight.
- Ear infections.
- Frequent sinus infections.
- Bronchiectasis [a chronic form of bronchitis].
- Absorption problems.
- Reduced liver function.
- Impaired blood flow to the liver.
- Reduced levels of blood cells or platelets.
- Enlarged spleen.
- Swollen glands or lymph nodes.
- Painful swollen joints in the knee, ankle, elbow, or wrist.
Is CVID life-threatening?
With ongoing treatment, many individuals with CVID live active and fulfilling lives. However, in some cases, complications of CVID (such as lung damage or cancer) may affect life expectancy. These complications appear over time and may become a threat to one’s life, but the process often takes years.
How to know if you are immunocompromised?
Indications that point out a weak immune system are apparent. For example, the American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology reports signs of a possible immune deficiency in adults to include:
- Having more than four episodes of ear infections in one year.
- Developing pneumonia twice during one year.
- Suffering from chronic sinusitis.
- Over three episodes of bacterial sinusitis annually.
What are the three common autoimmune disorders?
The three autoimmune diseases are:
- Type 1 diabetes: Here, the immune system attacks cells in the pancreas that make insulin.
- Rheumatoid arthritis: This type of arthritis causes swelling and deformities in the joints.
- Lupus: It attacks body tissues, kidneys, the lungs, kidneys, and skin.
What are the different types of immunodeficiency?
The main types of primary immune deficiency diseases include:
- Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome [ALPS].
- CARD-9 deficiency and other symptoms of susceptibility to candidiasis.
- Chronic granulomatous disease [CGD].
- Common variable immunodeficiency [CVID].
- Congenital neutropenia syndromes.
- CTLA-4 deficiency.
- DORK-8 deficiency.
What is the main cause of immunodeficiency?
It is known that when most people hear of immunodeficiency, the first thing that comes to mind is the thought about HIV or AIDS. However, there are many causes of immunodeficiency. The most common causes include HIV, malnutrition, and unsanitary conditions.