WHAT IS BLOOD TYPING TEST?
A blood typing test or “blood group test” can be described as a kind of testing done to ascertain the blood antigens and antibodies, which are certain protein molecule combinations found on red blood cells and blood plasma respectively in other to determine what type of blood type you may have. The antigens on the red blood cells are called RH factor which determines your blood type. This blood antigen is inherited.
WHY IS BLOOD TYPING TEST DONE?
Since not all blood types are compatible, a blood typing test is done to ensure compatibility between blood that is to be used for transfusion between a donor and a receiver.
This is done because the antibodies of the receiver may perceive the antibodies of the donor as being foreign and unhealthy to the body, which can result in the body fighting against the donated blood by creating its antibodies against the received antibodies.
As a result, it plays a vital role in the classification of person blood for transfusion and also useful during surgical procedures in other to prevent blood clumping and reduce the risk of death.
Blood typing also plays a vital role during pregnancy. For instance when an RH negative mother and an RH positive father may produce a child that is RH positive, which could post a danger between the mother and the unborn child as the blood of the mother could produce antibodies to fight the blood cells of that of the child if their blood type is not compactable, which could be fatal.
However, there is the probability of transfusing blood to people with different types that are not compactable as long as the antigen can recognize it and does not sees it as being foreign to the body.
According to the international society of blood transfusion, there are 41 human blood group systems but two are very important in the blood grouping system, and they are the “abo and Rh” blood grouping system. However, recent studies have shown the possibility of complications during blood transfusion could also be due to some other antigens that could be present.
WHAT DOES BLOOD TYPING TEST MEASURE?
Blood typing test measures and determines your blood group and your blood antibodies which are vital information needed in the case of blood transfusion, surgery, and even childbirth.
TYPES OF BLOOD TYPES
The abo blood grouping needs two antigens “A and B” and two antibodies “A and B” that are located in the human blood. Hence, it categorized the blood into four groups.
- Type A
This has A antigens and can donate to people of its blood type and people with type AB and can receive blood from people with type O and type AB only.
- Type B
This has B antigens resulting in people with this blood type being only able to donate blood to people with type B and type AB only. They can receive both types of blood from people with type B and type O.
- Type AB
This has AB antigens and is most called universal recipient as they can receive blood from all blood types but can only give blood to only people with blood type AB.
- Type O
This has neither A nor B antigens. This particular set of people are regarded as universal donors as they can give blood to any blood group due to the absence of antigens. Since they don’t have any antigen, they can only receive blood from blood type O since any blood received with antigens may be regarded as being foreign by the body.
Blood types are also classified based on RH type and include:
- Rh Positive
These are people with the type of antigens in their blood on the surface of their red blood cells. Hence, they can receive both RH positive or RH negative blood.
These are people with do not possess any RH-type antigens, hence can only receive blood from people with RH negative.
Both the abo grouping and the RH type grouping are used together to determine the blood type of an individual and they provide eight types together which include:
- A positive,
- A negative,
- B positive,
- B negative,
- AB negative,
- AB positive,
- O positive,
- O negative.
With about 37% of Americans being type O positive, 6% being O negative, 34% being A positive, and 6 percent is A negative.
TYPES OF BLOOD TYPING TEST
There are two types of procedures involved to find your blood type, which is the “forward and reverses blood grouping”.
- Forward Typing
This procedure involves mixing your blood sample that had been taken at the lab with antibodies against type A and B blood and observing to see if there is the presence of clumping or agglutination. If there is, it shows that your blood cells reacted with one of the antibodies.
For instance, if your blood cells clump when mixed with antibodies against type A which has antigen A, then you have type A blood.
- Reverse Typing
This is also called “back typing”. Here, the part of your blood without your red blood cell called your serum is mixed with blood cells that are known, which could be type A or type B.
For instance, if you have blood type A, you have antibodies against Type B blood in your serum. As a result, agglutination may occur when your blood type is mixed with blood type B. it is a cross-testing for forwarding typing
Anybody is eligible f blood typing tests especially those who are donating blood, those scheduled for surgery, pregnant and expecting mothers, etc.
BLOOD TYPING TEST PROCEDURES
A blood sample will be first taken by inserting a needle into your vein and blood drawn. After this, your blood is mixed with antibodies against type A and type B blood. Then, the blood sample is observed to see if it sticks or clumps together. If it sticks, then it implies that the blood sample reacted with one of the antibodies. The liquid part of the blood sample called “serum” is mixed with blood that is known to be type A and type B, and the result is observed.
Finding Out Blood Type
You can find out about your blood group through several means such as going directly to the hospital lab and conducting a blood type test, donating your blood at the community hospital blood bank, using a testing home kit, etc
They are also other ways to test for your blood type without actually needing to draw your blood. According to recent studies over 80% of people has been found to secrete blood type in bodily fluid such as saliva, mucus, sweat, etc
When testing at home for blood type using a home blood typing test, you will have to prick your finger with a lancet. After that, put drops of blood on a special card provided in the home kit, then observe where it clumps or spread out and compare your result on the guide or manual provided.
RISKS OR SIDE EFFECTS OF BLOOD TYPING TEST
Blood typing type is carried out without any side effect except the dizzily feeling and the swollen vein got when withdrawing blood sample which goes away in a day or two.
- What test is used for blood typing?
The test involved in blood typing includes abo typing and RH testing. Although there many about 41 grouping systems, the above RH testing system is proven effective and affordable over the years.
- What are the different blood typing techniques?
The different types of blood typing techniques include abo and RH typing, tube and slide method, solid-phase assay, genotyping, column agglutination, other blood group systems, etc.
- What is the rarest blood type?
The rarest blood type is blood type AB negative with only 1 percent of donors having such blood type.
- What is the healthiest blood type?
There are eight blood type and type O blood group is the blood group that has the lowest risk of heart disease and are considered to be the healthiest blood type.
- What blood type is more prone to heart disease?
There are eight blood types, out of which type blood AB and blood type B are considered the weakest as they have high tendencies for developing heart disease due to the high rate of inflammation experienced by people with type B and type AB. A healthy lifestyle is required for people with blood types AB and B.